25
Aug
haitianhistory:

Today’s term/concept is: HISTORIOGRAPHY 

So, what does this word mean in the context of historical research? 

Historiography usually refers to all the work on a given historical topic and/or the study of how historians have dealt with historical subject matters.
According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “In its most general sense, the term refers to the study of historians’ methods and practices. Moreover, “historiography becomes itself historical when we recognize that these frameworks of assumptions about historical knowledge and reasoning change over time. On this assumption, the history of historical thinking and writing is itself an interesting subject. How did historians of various periods in human history conduct their study and presentation of history?" (Source)
Trent University defines historiography as “a summary of the historical writings on a particular topic … It identifies the major thinkers and arguments, and establishes connections between them. If there have been major changes in the way a particular topic has been approached over time, the historiography identifies them.” (Source)

So, to put it plainly, historiography can be understood as the the body of historical writing on a topic and the history of how historians have approached a particular topic over time. 

⇒ For example, if you encounter in your readings: “The Historiography on the Haitian Revolution is very large” It usually means → ”Lots of stuff have been written about the Haitian Revolution.”
Historiography of course, does not only refer to the grouping of works on a topic, as we have seen already, it also focuses on the changes in historical methodology. 

So, historiography evolves over time? Why?

Historians can rarely escape their own time. This is not to say that the historical discipline is entirely subjective, rather, this is to suggest that historians do not write in vacuums. Historiographical essays are thus important because they help us see how the methodology in studying a particular topic has changed over time. 
⇒ For example, in the 1960s, most (but not all) historians favoured an approach that gave a significant importance to economy and were often interested in making Marxist and class-based analysis of History. This is not necessarily true today when many historians prefer an analysis which gives more space to culture (hence, you will often hear references to a "cultural" or "linguistic turn" in History). 
Now, this change in the way historians understand events rarely means they debate over the occurrence of those events (although, it does happen), — what it actually means is that historians find that some approches highlight factors that better explain historical events than others. Historians’ major task is not simply to narrate events, their work also involves looking at the relationship between various instances (that is, their causal relationship) in explaining historical events. (To make this text more digestible, I will save you a discussion on the problems historians face with narration and causality, just remember that the two have an influence on historiography.)
So, as just mentioned, historiography helps us see how historical writing changes, in part, because historians often take different approches with time.
⇒ For example, for a long time, the dominent historiography on the causes of World War I suggested that the Great War was fought between European powers for colonies (i.e. the surproduction of goods forced European capitalist to pressure their own government to support their adventures in foreign lands in search of the new markets). Other historians, who do not necessarily completely reject the previous explanation, argue however that nationalism is better in articulating the drive to go to war. Historiography also suggest that we should not neglect the importance of European alliance system before WWI (i.e. the “domino effect”). More importantly, most (but not all) historians who have favoured the colonies and market explanation tended to be further towards the left (Marxist, Leninist and so on) in their analysis. (Notice “tended’ is in italics.)
At any rate, historiography is a complex term but it is necessary to understand it in order to comprehend some of the work historians do (and to grasp the real nature of most of their disputes). 
To recapitulate, in most instances, historiography is:
The body of work on a particular historical topic (i.e. : the historiography on the Haitian Revolution, the 20th century historiography on the French Revolution, the historiography on Thomas Jefferson…)
The “history of history” (the study how historians have dealt with particular topics, with a special importance given to the context in which their work was written. This usually emplies analyzing the approach(es) historians have favoured to write about History (i.e.: was this historian sensible to the Marxist turn in History, the Postmodern turn in History, the Cultural turn in History, the Subaltern and Postcolonial turn in History …?))
Warning: Before using a term, always make sure you are comfortable with its meaning and that it won’t be placed in your text simply as an ornament. If unsure, consult an appropriate dictionary or a Professor. 

haitianhistory:

Today’s term/concept is: HISTORIOGRAPHY 

So, what does this word mean in the context of historical research? 

Historiography usually refers to all the work on a given historical topic and/or the study of how historians have dealt with historical subject matters.

According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “In its most general sense, the term refers to the study of historians’ methods and practices. Moreover, “historiography becomes itself historical when we recognize that these frameworks of assumptions about historical knowledge and reasoning change over time. On this assumption, the history of historical thinking and writing is itself an interesting subject. How did historians of various periods in human history conduct their study and presentation of history?" (Source)

Trent University defines historiography as “a summary of the historical writings on a particular topic … It identifies the major thinkers and arguments, and establishes connections between them. If there have been major changes in the way a particular topic has been approached over time, the historiography identifies them.” (Source)

So, to put it plainly, historiography can be understood as the the body of historical writing on a topic and the history of how historians have approached a particular topic over time. 

⇒ For example, if you encounter in your readings: “The Historiography on the Haitian Revolution is very large” It usually means → ”Lots of stuff have been written about the Haitian Revolution.”

Historiography of course, does not only refer to the grouping of works on a topic, as we have seen already, it also focuses on the changes in historical methodology. 

So, historiography evolves over time? Why?

Historians can rarely escape their own time. This is not to say that the historical discipline is entirely subjective, rather, this is to suggest that historians do not write in vacuums. Historiographical essays are thus important because they help us see how the methodology in studying a particular topic has changed over time. 

⇒ For example, in the 1960s, most (but not all) historians favoured an approach that gave a significant importance to economy and were often interested in making Marxist and class-based analysis of History. This is not necessarily true today when many historians prefer an analysis which gives more space to culture (hence, you will often hear references to a "cultural" or "linguistic turn" in History). 

Now, this change in the way historians understand events rarely means they debate over the occurrence of those events (although, it does happen), — what it actually means is that historians find that some approches highlight factors that better explain historical events than others. Historians’ major task is not simply to narrate events, their work also involves looking at the relationship between various instances (that is, their causal relationship) in explaining historical events. (To make this text more digestible, I will save you a discussion on the problems historians face with narration and causality, just remember that the two have an influence on historiography.)

So, as just mentioned, historiography helps us see how historical writing changes, in part, because historians often take different approches with time.

⇒ For example, for a long time, the dominent historiography on the causes of World War I suggested that the Great War was fought between European powers for colonies (i.e. the surproduction of goods forced European capitalist to pressure their own government to support their adventures in foreign lands in search of the new markets). Other historians, who do not necessarily completely reject the previous explanation, argue however that nationalism is better in articulating the drive to go to war. Historiography also suggest that we should not neglect the importance of European alliance system before WWI (i.e. the “domino effect”). More importantly, most (but not all) historians who have favoured the colonies and market explanation tended to be further towards the left (Marxist, Leninist and so on) in their analysis. (Notice “tended’ is in italics.)

At any rate, historiography is a complex term but it is necessary to understand it in order to comprehend some of the work historians do (and to grasp the real nature of most of their disputes). 

To recapitulate, in most instances, historiography is:

  • The body of work on a particular historical topic (i.e. : the historiography on the Haitian Revolution, the 20th century historiography on the French Revolution, the historiography on Thomas Jefferson…)
  • The “history of history” (the study how historians have dealt with particular topics, with a special importance given to the context in which their work was written. This usually emplies analyzing the approach(es) historians have favoured to write about History (i.e.: was this historian sensible to the Marxist turn in History, the Postmodern turn in History, the Cultural turn in History, the Subaltern and Postcolonial turn in History …?))

Warning: Before using a term, always make sure you are comfortable with its meaning and that it won’t be placed in your text simply as an ornament. If unsure, consult an appropriate dictionary or a Professor. 

(via asianhistory)

25
Aug
thepoliticalfreakshow:

African-American Girls & Women Killed By Police: Speak Their Names. See Their Faces. Know Their Stories.
There is this false myth going around that Black women are not victims of police violence. I believe the myth exists because quite frankly the media, social justice organizations and we the public tend not to focus on it. It is a self-fulfilling prophecy. I hope this post will make all of us change our minds. Here are the stories of some of the Black women and girls killed by law enforcement:
Adaisha Miller, Detroit Woman, Hugged Cop From Behind
LAPD cop charged with assault in death of Alesia Thomas
7-year- old Aiyana Stanley-Jones – Detroit Free Press
17 Year Old Darnesha Harris Dead after Run-In with Breaux
Mackala Ross and Delores Epps
Eleanor Bumpurs
Erica Collins family files lawsuit against Cincy Police
Pleasant Grove crash claims life of second person | AL.com (Heather Parker)
Family grieves after loved one killed in crash with APD (Jacqueline Culp)
Family of victim question police use of deadly force – KWCH (Karen Day)
Kendra James remembered at Portland rally | KOIN.com
Pedestrian Killed on I-95 in Florida (Laporsha Watson)
After Cleveland shooting, cities restrict police chases(Malissa Williams)
Miriam Carey, Capitol Suspect, Suffered Post-Partum Depression
Elderly Woman Shot & Killed By Hearne Police Officer (Pearlie Golden)
Rekia Boyd Settlement: Family Of Unarmed Chicago Woman
Former Pa. trooper pleads guilty in fatal accident (Robin T. Williams)
Shantel Davis Killed By NYPD Cop In Car Chase | News One
Friends: Woman killed by police was nonviolent | Las Vegas (Sharmel Edwards)
Suspected Walmart Shoplifter Shot To Death In Front Of Kids (Shelly Frey)
The NYPD’s Poor Judgment With the Mentally Ill | Village Voice (Shereese Francis)
Harrisburg woman identified as victim in police SUV crash (Shulena S. Weldon)
$2.5M settlement in shooting of Lima woman by police officer (Tarika Wilson)
No Charges in Killing of Tyisha Miller – Los Angeles Times
Texas Police Admit Officer Shot & Killed Unarmed Woman (Yvette Smith)

thepoliticalfreakshow:

African-American Girls & Women Killed By Police: Speak Their Names. See Their Faces. Know Their Stories.

There is this false myth going around that Black women are not victims of police violence. I believe the myth exists because quite frankly the media, social justice organizations and we the public tend not to focus on it. It is a self-fulfilling prophecy. I hope this post will make all of us change our minds. Here are the stories of some of the Black women and girls killed by law enforcement:

Adaisha Miller, Detroit Woman, Hugged Cop From Behind

LAPD cop charged with assault in death of Alesia Thomas

7-year- old Aiyana Stanley-JonesDetroit Free Press

17 Year Old Darnesha Harris Dead after Run-In with Breaux

Mackala Ross and Delores Epps

Eleanor Bumpurs

Erica Collins family files lawsuit against Cincy Police

Pleasant Grove crash claims life of second person | AL.com (Heather Parker)

Family grieves after loved one killed in crash with APD (Jacqueline Culp)

Family of victim question police use of deadly force – KWCH (Karen Day)

Kendra James remembered at Portland rally | KOIN.com

Pedestrian Killed on I-95 in Florida (Laporsha Watson)

After Cleveland shooting, cities restrict police chases(Malissa Williams)

Miriam Carey, Capitol Suspect, Suffered Post-Partum Depression

Elderly Woman Shot & Killed By Hearne Police Officer (Pearlie Golden)

Rekia Boyd Settlement: Family Of Unarmed Chicago Woman

Former Pa. trooper pleads guilty in fatal accident (Robin T. Williams)

Shantel Davis Killed By NYPD Cop In Car Chase | News One

Friends: Woman killed by police was nonviolent | Las Vegas (Sharmel Edwards)

Suspected Walmart Shoplifter Shot To Death In Front Of Kids (Shelly Frey)

The NYPD’s Poor Judgment With the Mentally Ill | Village Voice (Shereese Francis)

Harrisburg woman identified as victim in police SUV crash (Shulena S. Weldon)

$2.5M settlement in shooting of Lima woman by police officer (Tarika Wilson)

No Charges in Killing of Tyisha MillerLos Angeles Times

Texas Police Admit Officer Shot & Killed Unarmed Woman (Yvette Smith)

(via cognitivedissonance)

25
Aug
25
Aug
vinylespassion:

1985
25
Aug
rtamerica:

Michael Brown funeral draws thousands along with celebrities, civil rights leaders
Thousands of people attended a Baptist church in Missouri on Monday in order to mourn and celebrate the life of Michael Brown, a young, unarmed black man who died after being shot by local police.
The funeral took place at the Friendly Temple Missionary Baptist Church, attracting a large crowd as well as prominent figures such as Rev. Jesse Jackson, children of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., White House officials, Congressional members, and the film director Spike Lee.
Although there were plenty of tears shed at the religious service, the mood has been described as celebratory, with singing by a choir and even dancing in the church.

rtamerica:

Michael Brown funeral draws thousands along with celebrities, civil rights leaders

Thousands of people attended a Baptist church in Missouri on Monday in order to mourn and celebrate the life of Michael Brown, a young, unarmed black man who died after being shot by local police.

The funeral took place at the Friendly Temple Missionary Baptist Church, attracting a large crowd as well as prominent figures such as Rev. Jesse Jackson, children of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., White House officials, Congressional members, and the film director Spike Lee.

Although there were plenty of tears shed at the religious service, the mood has been described as celebratory, with singing by a choir and even dancing in the church.

25
Aug
nativeamericannews:

Native American Legend of The Thunder-Bird http://bit.ly/1ocUNCf 

nativeamericannews:

Native American Legend of The Thunder-Bird http://bit.ly/1ocUNCf 

25
Aug
25
Aug
humanrightswatch:

Better Accountability Needed for Police Abuses in the US
“They think they’re above the law,” replied 53-year-old Diane, who was out marching on West Florissant Avenue in Ferguson, Missouri last Monday afternoon, when I asked her about police-community relations. “The people fear the police because when they’re supposed to help you, they attack you.”
It’s clear that what’s happened in Ferguson in the last two weeks is not only about Michael Brown, the 18-year-old African-American shot and killed by a police officer on August 9. Nor is it entirely about the Ferguson Police Department. The frustrations I heard from black residents of Ferguson and surrounding areas regarding how they’re treated by police – from the lack of respect with which some officers treat them, to the greaterlikelihood of their being stopped by officers than whites, to the perception that police officers seem to place little value on the lives of black people (one woman I spoke to compared the Michael Brown case to that of a white robbery suspect the previous week who, despite injuringpolice in a struggle, was arrested without police firing any shots) – are familiar ones throughout the UnitedStates. Many of these concerns are backed up by data about racial disparities in the US criminal justice system.
The problems are compounded by the difficulty of holding police officers accountable in cases of brutality. Whiledata on these cases is hard to come by, examples abound where police appear to have engaged in excessive use of force causing death or injury, yet avoided criminal charges or even disciplinary sanctions.
International human rights standards applicable to the United States require that victims have “accessible and effective remedies” to vindicate their rights. But the residents of Ferguson and surrounding areas have few avenues through which to seek recourse when police commit abuses. Ferguson does not have an independent citizen complaint review board, one of the main mechanisms in other parts of the country for the disciplinaryinvestigation of police misconduct. The Ferguson Police Department’s internal affairs complaint procedures – which might offer another route to report misconduct – are not made readily available to the public. 
Of the dozens of people I spoke to while in Ferguson, nobody knew how to file a complaint against an officer. At a community meeting in a Florissant elementary school on Tuesday night, I talked to two criminal lawyers, neither of whom could tell me what the grievance procedure was for a person who wanted to file a complaint against an officer. I asked two other defense lawyers later that night whether there was procedure for filing complaints against officers, and they both chuckled. Indeed, the Ferguson Police Department website contains no information on grievance procedures for filing complaints against officers, and when I called the department to inquire, I was referred to a public relations firm, Commonground PR. Calls to the firm went to voicemail.
While victims of police abuse would in theory have recourse to a civil lawsuit, there are reasons to think that’s not always an option for people in in the St. Louis area. Thomas Hardy, executive director of Arch City Defenders, a legal services provider in the St. Louis area, told me that in many instances in which his office’s clients are charged with resisting arrest, assault on a law enforcement officer, or interfering with public administration, there is evidence that they were beaten up by police. Prosecutors will often offer to dismiss these cases, but only if the defendant agrees to waive any future civil lawsuits against the municipality.
When people see police engaging in misconduct with no consequences, that only increases their mistrust and fear of police. Nobody should be above the law, including police. While there is no substitute for effective criminal investigations and prosecutions, Ferguson and other communities could take a step in the right direction by establishing clear, transparent mechanisms for accountability, such as independent and effective review boards. Such mechanisms could go a long way towards protecting human rights and beginning to close the rift between communities and those who police them.
Photo: Smoke trails tear gas canisters fired into the air after protests in reaction to the shooting of Michael Brown turned violent near Ferguson, Missouri on August 17, 2014. © 2014 Human Rights Watch

humanrightswatch:

Better Accountability Needed for Police Abuses in the US

“They think they’re above the law,” replied 53-year-old Diane, who was out marching on West Florissant Avenue in Ferguson, Missouri last Monday afternoon, when I asked her about police-community relations. “The people fear the police because when they’re supposed to help you, they attack you.”

It’s clear that what’s happened in Ferguson in the last two weeks is not only about Michael Brown, the 18-year-old African-American shot and killed by a police officer on August 9. Nor is it entirely about the Ferguson Police Department. The frustrations I heard from black residents of Ferguson and surrounding areas regarding how they’re treated by police – from the lack of respect with which some officers treat them, to the greaterlikelihood of their being stopped by officers than whites, to the perception that police officers seem to place little value on the lives of black people (one woman I spoke to compared the Michael Brown case to that of a white robbery suspect the previous week who, despite injuringpolice in a struggle, was arrested without police firing any shots) – are familiar ones throughout the UnitedStates. Many of these concerns are backed up by data about racial disparities in the US criminal justice system.

The problems are compounded by the difficulty of holding police officers accountable in cases of brutality. Whiledata on these cases is hard to come by, examples abound where police appear to have engaged in excessive use of force causing death or injury, yet avoided criminal charges or even disciplinary sanctions.

International human rights standards applicable to the United States require that victims have “accessible and effective remedies” to vindicate their rights. But the residents of Ferguson and surrounding areas have few avenues through which to seek recourse when police commit abuses. Ferguson does not have an independent citizen complaint review board, one of the main mechanisms in other parts of the country for the disciplinaryinvestigation of police misconduct. The Ferguson Police Department’s internal affairs complaint procedures – which might offer another route to report misconduct – are not made readily available to the public. 

Of the dozens of people I spoke to while in Ferguson, nobody knew how to file a complaint against an officer. At a community meeting in a Florissant elementary school on Tuesday night, I talked to two criminal lawyers, neither of whom could tell me what the grievance procedure was for a person who wanted to file a complaint against an officer. I asked two other defense lawyers later that night whether there was procedure for filing complaints against officers, and they both chuckled. Indeed, the Ferguson Police Department website contains no information on grievance procedures for filing complaints against officers, and when I called the department to inquire, I was referred to a public relations firm, Commonground PR. Calls to the firm went to voicemail.

While victims of police abuse would in theory have recourse to a civil lawsuit, there are reasons to think that’s not always an option for people in in the St. Louis area. Thomas Hardy, executive director of Arch City Defenders, a legal services provider in the St. Louis area, told me that in many instances in which his office’s clients are charged with resisting arrest, assault on a law enforcement officer, or interfering with public administration, there is evidence that they were beaten up by police. Prosecutors will often offer to dismiss these cases, but only if the defendant agrees to waive any future civil lawsuits against the municipality.

When people see police engaging in misconduct with no consequences, that only increases their mistrust and fear of police. Nobody should be above the law, including police. While there is no substitute for effective criminal investigations and prosecutions, Ferguson and other communities could take a step in the right direction by establishing clear, transparent mechanisms for accountability, such as independent and effective review boards. Such mechanisms could go a long way towards protecting human rights and beginning to close the rift between communities and those who police them.

Photo: Smoke trails tear gas canisters fired into the air after protests in reaction to the shooting of Michael Brown turned violent near Ferguson, Missouri on August 17, 2014. © 2014 Human Rights Watch

(via dangerousmindtheory)

24
Jul

Shooting at hospital near Philadelphia injures 3

DARBY, Pa. (AP) — Police in suburban Philadelphia are investigating a shooting at a hospital campus that may have left as many as three people injured and say a suspect is in custody.

24
Jul
To begin with, you need to write. This seems axiomatic because it is. The only way to amass a pile of words into a book is to shovel some every single day. No days off. You have to form this habit; without it you are screwed. I’m going to assume everyone who keeps reading already has this down. If you don’t — you won’t make it. My best advice on how to form this habit is twofold: Get comfortable staring at a blank screen and not writing. This is a skill. If you can not write and avoid filling that time with distractions, you’ll get to the point where you start writing. Open your manuscript and just be with it.
-

Hugh Howey, author of the famous Wool series, offers his advice to aspiring writers – a fine addition to our ongoing archive of writing advice.

For the ultimate resource, see the famous writers’ collected advice on writing. And for empirical evidence of this rain-or-shine approach to writing, see the daily routines of great authors

(via explore-blog)

SOCIAL MEDIA

Music Player

Loading Music
Powered by Soundcloud

Upcoming Shows

Merchandise

    eyeseeghosts